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Why can't I use traceroute or ping in my shell account? I get the message "command not found"

You have them, they're just not in your path, which consists of the directories that the OS searches through to find a program every time you run that program.

ping is in /sbin

traceroute is in /usr/sbin

Your shell is most likely set to be tcsh, so you add this to your .cshrc:

setenv PATH /bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin

If you use bash, add this to your .bash_profile:

export PATH=$PATH:/sbin:/usr/sbin

You can type either command at the prompt to get it working immediately, but you need to make the changes described above in order for it to take effect every time you login.